The definitions below are derived from official public sources, including the National Institutes of Health [NIH], the European Union [EU] and from www.medterms.com


Abdominal: Having to do with the abdomen, which is the part of the body between the chest and the hips that contains the pancreas, stomach, intestines, liver, gallbladder, and other organs. [NIH]

Abdominal Pain: Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region. [NIH]

Aberrant: Wandering or deviating from the usual or normal course. [EU]

Abscess: A localized, circumscribed collection of pus. [NIH]

Acetaminophen: Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage. [NIH]

Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of adenine and d-ribose. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter. [NIH]

Adjuvant: A substance which aids another, such as an auxiliary remedy; in immunology, nonspecific stimulator (e.g., BCG vaccine) of the immune response. [EU]

Adrenal Medulla: The inner part of the adrenal gland; it synthesizes, stores and releases catecholamines. [NIH]

Adrenergic: Activated by, characteristic of, or secreting epinephrine or substances with similar activity; the term is applied to those nerve fibres that liberate norepinephrine at a synapse when a nerve impulse passes, i.e., the sympathetic fibres. [EU]

Adverse Effect: An unwanted side effect of treatment. [NIH]

Alertness: A state of readiness to detect and respond to certain specified small changes occurring at random intervals in the environment. [NIH]

Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task. [NIH]

Alpha-1: A protein with the property of inactivating proteolytic enzymes such as leucocyte collagenase and elastase. [NIH]

Alternative medicine: Practices not generally recognized by the medical community as standard or conventional medical approaches and used instead of standard treatments. Alternative medicine includes the taking of dietary supplements, megadose vitamins, and herbal preparations; the drinking of special teas; and practices such as massage therapy, magnet therapy, spiritual healing, and meditation. [NIH]

Amenorrhea: Absence of menstruation. [NIH]

Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins. [NIH]

Amitriptyline: Tricyclic antidepressant with anticholinergic and sedative properties. It appears to prevent the re-uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin at nerve terminals, thus potentiating the action of these neurotransmitters. Amitriptyline also appears to antaganize cholinergic and alpha-1 adrenergic responses to bioactive amines. [NIH]

Anal: Having to do with the anus, which is the posterior opening of the large bowel. [NIH]

Analgesic: An agent that alleviates pain without causing loss of consciousness. [EU]

Angina: Chest pain that originates in the heart. [NIH]

Angina Pectoris: The symptom of paroxysmal pain consequent to myocardial ischemia usually of distinctive character, location and radiation, and provoked by a transient stressful situation during which the oxygen requirements of the myocardium exceed the capacity of the coronary circulation to supply it. [NIH]

Anorexia: Lack or loss of appetite for food. Appetite is psychologic, dependent on memory and associations. Anorexia can be brought about by unattractive food, surroundings, or company. [NIH]

Anorexia Nervosa: The chief symptoms are inability to eat, weight loss, and amenorrhea. [NIH]

Antagonism: Interference with, or inhibition of, the growth of a living organism by another living organism, due either to creation of unfavorable conditions (e. g. exhaustion of food supplies) or to production of a specific antibiotic substance (e. g. penicillin). [NIH]

Anticholinergic: An agent that blocks the parasympathetic nerves. Called also parasympatholytic. [EU]

Antidepressant: A drug used to treat depression. [NIH]

Anti-inflammatory: Having to do with reducing inflammation. [NIH]

Antimetabolite: A chemical that is very similar to one required in a normal biochemical reaction in cells. Antimetabolites can stop or slow down the reaction. [NIH]

Antipyretic: An agent that relieves or reduces fever. Called also antifebrile, antithermic and febrifuge. [EU]

Anus: The opening of the rectum to the outside of the body. [NIH]

Anxiety: Persistent feeling of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster. [NIH]

Aphthous Stomatitis: Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the mouth. [NIH]

Arteritis: Inflammation of an artery. [NIH]

Artery: Vessel-carrying blood from the heart to various parts of the body. [NIH]

Atypical: Irregular; not conformable to the type; in microbiology, applied specifically to strains of unusual type. [EU]

Autogenic: A type of succession when the developing vegetation itself is the cause for the succession. [NIH]

Autogenic Training: Technique based on muscle relaxation during self-hypnotic exercises. It is used in conjunction with psychotherapy. [NIH]

Autoimmune disease: A condition in which the body recognizes its own tissues as foreign and directs an immune response against them. [NIH]

Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the trunk, including the thoracic, lumbar, sacral, or adjacent regions. [NIH]

Bacteria: Unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. [NIH]

Base: In chemistry, the nonacid part of a salt; a substance that combines with acids to form salts; a substance that dissociates to give hydroxide ions in aqueous solutions; a substance whose molecule or ion can combine with a proton (hydrogen ion); a substance capable of donating a pair of electrons (to an acid) for the formation of a coordinate covalent bond. [EU]

Benign: Not cancerous; does not invade nearby tissue or spread to other parts of the body. [NIH]

Bilateral: Affecting both the right and left side of body. [NIH]

Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the liver and secreted into the duodenum. Its

composition includes bile acids and salts, cholesterol, and electrolytes. It aids digestion of

fats in the duodenum. [NIH]

Bile duct: A tube through which bile passes in and out of the liver. [NIH]

Biochemical: Relating to biochemistry; characterized by, produced by, or involving

chemical reactions in living organisms. [EU]

Biomarkers: Substances sometimes found in an increased amount in the blood, other body

fluids, or tissues and that may suggest the presence of some types of cancer. Biomarkers

include CA 125 (ovarian cancer), CA 15-3 (breast cancer), CEA (ovarian, lung, breast,

pancreas, and GI tract cancers), and PSA (prostate cancer). Also called tumor markers. [NIH]

Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived

constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and

clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., genetic

engineering) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include transfection and cloning

technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and

protein structure function analysis and prediction. [NIH]

Bladder: The organ that stores urine. [NIH]

Bloating: Fullness or swelling in the abdomen that often occurs after meals. [NIH]

Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found

in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation. [NIH]

Blood vessel: A tube in the body through which blood circulates. Blood vessels include a

network of arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins. [NIH]

Body Fluids: Liquid components of living organisms. [NIH]

Bowel: The long tube-shaped organ in the abdomen that completes the process of digestion.

There is both a small and a large bowel. Also called the intestine. [NIH]

Bowel Movement: Body wastes passed through the rectum and anus. [NIH]

Bruxism: A disorder characterized by grinding and clenching of the teeth. [NIH]

Bulimia: Episodic binge eating. The episodes may be associated with the fear of not being

able to stop eating, depressed mood, or self-deprecating thoughts (binge-eating disorder)

and may frequently be terminated by self-induced vomiting (bulimia nervosa). [NIH]

Burning Mouth Syndrome: A group of painful oral symptoms associated with a burning or

similar sensation. There is usually a significant organic component with a degree of

functional overlay; it is not limited to the psychophysiologic group of disorders. [NIH]

Butyric Acid: A four carbon acid, CH3CH2CH2COOH, with an unpleasant odor that occurs

in butter and animal fat as the glycerol ester. [NIH]

Caffeine: A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a

pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central

nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes

smooth muscle, stimulates cardiac muscle, stimulates diuresis, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases, antagonism of adenosine receptors, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling. [NIH]

Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes. [NIH]

Cardiac: Having to do with the heart. [NIH]

Cardiovascular: Having to do with the heart and blood vessels. [NIH]

Catecholamine: A group of chemical substances manufactured by the adrenal medulla and secreted during physiological stress. [NIH]

Cell: The individual unit that makes up all of the tissues of the body. All living things are made up of one or more cells. [NIH]

Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. [NIH]

Central Nervous System Infections: Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA virus infections; RNA virus infections; bacterial infections; mycoplasma infections; Spirochaetales infections; fungal infections; protozoan infections; helminthiasis; and prion diseases may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process. [NIH]

Cerebral: Of or pertaining of the cerebrum or the brain. [EU]

Cerebrospinal: Pertaining to the brain and spinal cord. [EU]

Cerebrospinal fluid: CSF. The fluid flowing around the brain and spinal cord. Cerebrospinal fluid is produced in the ventricles in the brain. [NIH]

Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain. It is divided into two hemispheres, or halves, called the cerebral hemispheres. The cerebrum controls muscle functions of the body and also controls speech, emotions, reading, writing, and learning. [NIH]

Cervical: Relating to the neck, or to the neck of any organ or structure. Cervical lymph nodes are located in the neck; cervical cancer refers to cancer of the uterine cervix, which is the lower, narrow end (the "neck") of the uterus. [NIH]

Cervix: The lower, narrow end of the uterus that forms a canal between the uterus and vagina. [NIH]

Character: In current usage, approximately equivalent to personality. The sum of the relatively fixed personality traits and habitual modes of response of an individual. [NIH]

Cholinergic: Resembling acetylcholine in pharmacological action; stimulated by or releasing acetylcholine or a related compound. [EU]

Chronic: A disease or condition that persists or progresses over a long period of time. [NIH]

Classic Migraine: Migraine preceded or accompanied by characteristic visual sensory disturbances, especially peripheral scintillations and hemianopsia. [NIH]

Clinical trial: A research study that tests how well new medical treatments or other interventions work in people. Each study is designed to test new methods of screening, prevention, diagnosis, or treatment of a disease. [NIH]

Cloning: The production of a number of genetically identical individuals; in genetic engineering, a process for the efficient replication of a great number of identical DNA molecules. [NIH]

Codeine: An opioid analgesic related to morphine but with less potent analgesic properties and mild sedative effects. It also acts centrally to suppress cough. [NIH]

Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism becomes aware of or obtains knowledge. [NIH]

Cognitive Therapy: A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior. [NIH]

Colitis: Inflammation of the colon. [NIH]

Colloidal: Of the nature of a colloid. [EU]

Colon: The long, coiled, tubelike organ that removes water from digested food. The remaining material, solid waste called stool, moves through the colon to the rectum and leaves the body through the anus. [NIH]

Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival. [NIH]

Complement: A term originally used to refer to the heat-labile factor in serum that causes immune cytolysis, the lysis of antibody-coated cells, and now referring to the entire functionally related system comprising at least 20 distinct serum proteins that is the effector not only of immune cytolysis but also of other biologic functions. Complement activation occurs by two different sequences, the classic and alternative pathways. The proteins of the classic pathway are termed 'components of complement' and are designated by the symbols C1 through C9. C1 is a calcium-dependent complex of three distinct proteins C1q, C1r and C1s. The proteins of the alternative pathway (collectively referred to as the properdin system) and complement regulatory proteins are known by semisystematic or trivial names. Fragments resulting from proteolytic cleavage of complement proteins are designated with lower-case letter suffixes, e.g., C3a. Inactivated fragments may be designated with the suffix

'i', e.g. C3bi. Activated components or complexes with biological activity are designated by a bar over the symbol e.g. C1 or C4b,2a. The classic pathway is activated by the binding of C1 to classic pathway activators, primarily antigen-antibody complexes containing IgM, IgG1, IgG3; C1q binds to a single IgM molecule or two adjacent IgG molecules. The alternative pathway can be activated by IgA immune complexes and also by nonimmunologic materials including bacterial endotoxins, microbial polysaccharides, and cell walls. Activation of the classic pathway triggers an enzymatic cascade involving C1, C4, C2 and C3; activation of the alternative pathway triggers a cascade involving C3 and factors B, D and P. Both result in the cleavage of C5 and the formation of the membrane attack complex. Complement activation also results in the formation of many biologically active complement fragments that act as anaphylatoxins, opsonins, or chemotactic factors. [EU]

Complementary and alternative medicine: CAM. Forms of treatment that are used in addition to (complementary) or instead of (alternative) standard treatments. These practices are not considered standard medical approaches. CAM includes dietary supplements, megadose vitamins, herbal preparations, special teas, massage therapy, magnet therapy, spiritual healing, and meditation. [NIH]

Complementary medicine: Practices not generally recognized by the medical community as standard or conventional medical approaches and used to enhance or complement the standard treatments. Complementary medicine includes the taking of dietary supplements, megadose vitamins, and herbal preparations; the drinking of special teas; and practices such as massage therapy, magnet therapy, spiritual healing, and meditation. [NIH]

Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories applicable to molecular biology and areas of computer-based techniques for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets. [NIH]

Congestion: Excessive or abnormal accumulation of blood in a part. [EU]

Conjunctiva: The mucous membrane that lines the inner surface of the eyelids and the anterior part of the sclera. [NIH]

Connective Tissue: Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of connective tissue cells embedded in a large amount of extracellular matrix. [NIH]

Connective Tissue: Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of connective tissue cells embedded in a large amount of extracellular matrix. [NIH]

Consciousness: Sense of awareness of self and of the environment. [NIH]

Constipation: Infrequent or difficult evacuation of feces. [NIH]

Continuum: An area over which the vegetation or animal population is of constantly changing composition so that homogeneous, separate communities cannot be distinguished. [NIH]

Contraindications: Any factor or sign that it is unwise to pursue a certain kind of action or treatment, e. g. giving a general anesthetic to a person with pneumonia. [NIH]

Controlled study: An experiment or clinical trial that includes a comparison (control) group. [NIH]

Coordination: Muscular or motor regulation or the harmonious cooperation of muscles or groups of muscles, in a complex action or series of actions. [NIH]

Coronary: Encircling in the manner of a crown; a term applied to vessels; nerves, ligaments, etc. The term usually denotes the arteries that supply the heart muscle and, by extension, a pathologic involvement of them. [EU]

Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the coronary vessels of the heart. [NIH]

Cranial: Pertaining to the cranium, or to the anterior (in animals) or superior (in humans) end of the body. [EU]

Craniocerebral Trauma: Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., brain; cranial nerves; meninges; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage. [NIH]

Curare: Plant extracts from several species, including Strychnos toxifera, S. castelnaei, S. crevauxii, and Chondodendron tomentosum, that produce paralysis of skeletal muscle and are used adjunctively with general anesthesia. These extracts are toxic and must be used with the administration of artificial respiration. [NIH]

Curative: Tending to overcome disease and promote recovery. [EU]

Cyclic: Pertaining to or occurring in a cycle or cycles; the term is applied to chemical compounds that contain a ring of atoms in the nucleus. [EU]

Delusions: A false belief regarding the self or persons or objects outside the self that persists

despite the facts, and is not considered tenable by one's associates. [NIH]

Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss

of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively

persistent. [NIH]

Dermatitis: Any inflammation of the skin. [NIH]

Diagnostic procedure: A method used to identify a disease. [NIH]

Diarrhea: Passage of excessively liquid or excessively frequent stools. [NIH]

Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body. [NIH]

Direct: 1. Straight; in a straight line. 2. Performed immediately and without the intervention

of subsidiary means. [EU]

Discrete: Made up of separate parts or characterized by lesions which do not become

blended; not running together; separate. [NIH]

Diuresis: Increased excretion of urine. [EU]

Double-blind: Pertaining to a clinical trial or other experiment in which neither the subject

nor the person administering treatment knows which treatment any particular subject is

receiving. [EU] (see also http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Double-blind ).

Double-blinded: A clinical trial in which neither the medical staff nor the person knows

which of several possible therapies the person is receiving. [NIH]

Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity

of another drug. [NIH]

Dysmenorrhea: Painful menstruation. [NIH]

Dysphagia: Difficulty in swallowing. [EU]

Dysphoric: A feeling of unpleasantness and discomfort. [NIH]

Eating Disorders: A group of disorders characterized by physiological and psychological

disturbances in appetite or food intake. [NIH]

Eczema: A pruritic papulovesicular dermatitis occurring as a reaction to many endogenous

and exogenous agents (Dorland, 27th ed). [NIH]

Efficacy: The extent to which a specific intervention, procedure, regimen, or service

produces a beneficial result under ideal conditions. Ideally, the determination of efficacy is

based on the results of a randomized control trial. [NIH]

Electrophoresis: An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles

with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.


Empirical: A treatment based on an assumed diagnosis, prior to receiving confirmatory

laboratory test results. [NIH]

Endogenous: Produced inside an organism or cell. The opposite is external (exogenous)

production. [NIH]

Endotoxic: Of, relating to, or acting as an endotoxin (= a heat-stable toxin, associated with

the outer membranes of certain gram-negative bacteria. Endotoxins are not secreted and are

released only when the cells are disrupted). [EU]

Enkephalin: A natural opiate painkiller, in the hypothalamus. [NIH]

Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences,

or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.


Epidemiological: Relating to, or involving epidemiology. [EU]

Epidermal: Pertaining to or resembling epidermis. Called also epidermic or epidermoid. [EU]

Epidermis: Nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers:

1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); 2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); 3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); 4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and 5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis). [NIH]

Ethionine: 2-Amino-4-(ethylthio)butyric acid. An antimetabolite and methionine antagonist that interferes with amino acid incorporation into proteins and with cellular ATP utilization. It also produces liver neoplasms. [NIH]

Exogenous: Developed or originating outside the organism, as exogenous disease. [EU]

Facial: Of or pertaining to the face. [EU]

Facial Pain: Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as facial pain syndromes. [NIH]

Family Planning: Programs or services designed to assist the family in controlling reproduction by either improving or diminishing fertility. [NIH]

Fat: Total lipids including phospholipids. [NIH]

Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli. [NIH]

Femoxetine: A selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor drug used in obese patients for weight loss. [NIH]

Flexor: Muscles which flex a joint. [NIH]

Gas: Air that comes from normal breakdown of food. The gases are passed out of the body

through the rectum (flatus) or the mouth (burp). [NIH]

Gastrointestinal: Refers to the stomach and intestines. [NIH]

Gastrointestinal tract: The stomach and intestines. [NIH]

Gene: The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes

are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.


General practitioner: A medical practitioner who does not specialize in a particular branch

of medicine or limit his practice to a specific class of diseases. [NIH]

Germ Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms. [NIH]

Gingivitis: Inflammation of the gingivae. Gingivitis associated with bony changes is

referred to as periodontitis. Called also oulitis and ulitis. [EU]

Glossopharyngeal Nerve: The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed

motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general,

special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the

stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste

afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and

afferents from baroreceptors and chemoreceptors of the carotid sinus. [NIH]

Gout: Hereditary metabolic disorder characterized by recurrent acute arthritis,

hyperuricemia and deposition of sodium urate in and around the joints, sometimes with

formation of uric acid calculi. [NIH]

Governing Board: The group in which legal authority is vested for the control of healthrelated

institutions and organizations. [NIH]

Handedness: Preference for using right or left hand. [NIH]

Headache Disorders: Common conditions characterized by persistent or recurrent

headaches. Headache syndrome classification systems may be based on etiology (e.g.,

vascular headache, post-traumatic headaches, etc.), temporal pattern (e.g., cluster headache,

paroxysmal hemicrania, etc.), and precipitating factors (e.g., cough headache). [NIH]

Hemianopsia: Partial or complete loss of vision in one half of the visual field(s) of one or

both eyes. Subtypes include altitudinal hemianopsia, characterized by a visual defect above

or below the horizontal meridian of the visual field. Homonymous hemianopsia refers to a

visual defect that affects both eyes equally, and occurs either to the left or right of the

midline of the visual field. Binasal hemianopsia consists of loss of vision in the nasal

hemifields of both eyes. Bitemporal hemianopsia is the bilateral loss of vision in the

temporal fields. Quadrantanopsia refers to loss of vision in one quarter of the visual field in

one or both eyes. [NIH]

Hemorrhage: Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel. [NIH]

Hemostasis: The process which spontaneously arrests the flow of blood from vessels

carrying blood under pressure. It is accomplished by contraction of the vessels, adhesion

and aggregation of formed blood elements, and the process of blood or plasma coagulation.


Histamine: 1H-Imidazole-4-ethanamine. A depressor amine derived by enzymatic

decarboxylation of histidine. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of

bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter. [NIH]

Homogeneous: Consisting of or composed of similar elements or ingredients; of a uniform

quality throughout. [EU]

Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ, not due to tumor

formation. It differs from hypertrophy, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in

the number of cells. [NIH]

Hypertension: Persistently high arterial blood pressure. Currently accepted threshold levels

are 140 mm Hg systolic and 90 mm Hg diastolic pressure. [NIH]

Hypnotic: A drug that acts to induce sleep. [EU]

Hypochondriasis: (DSM III-R) a mental disorder characterized by a preoccupation with

bodily functions and the interpretation of normal sensations (such as heart beats, sweating,

peristaltic action, and bowel movements) or minor abnormalities (such as a runny nose,

minor aches and pains, or slightly swollen lymph nodes) as indications of highly disturbing

problems needing medical attention. Negative results of diagnostic evaluations and

reassurance by physicians only increase the patient's anxious concern about his health, and

the patient continues to seek medical attention. Called also hypochondriacal neurosis. [EU]

Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the diencephalon extending from the region of the optic

chiasm to the caudal border of the mammillary bodies and forming the inferior and lateral

walls of the third ventricle. [NIH]

Immune response: The activity of the immune system against foreign substances (antigens).


Immunogenic: Producing immunity; evoking an immune response. [EU]

Immunology: The study of the body's immune system. [NIH]

Impaction: The trapping of an object in a body passage. Examples are stones in the bile duct

or hardened stool in the colon. [NIH]

Infection: 1. Invasion and multiplication of microorganisms in body tissues, which may be

clinically unapparent or result in local cellular injury due to competitive metabolism, toxins,

intracellular replication, or antigen-antibody response. The infection may remain localized,

subclinical, and temporary if the body's defensive mechanisms are effective. A local

infection may persist and spread by extension to become an acute, subacute, or chronic

clinical infection or disease state. A local infection may also become systemic when the

microorganisms gain access to the lymphatic or vascular system. 2. An infectious disease.


Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues

caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical

signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. [NIH]

Insulator: Material covering the metal conductor of the lead. It is usually polyurethane or

silicone. [NIH]

Intestine: A long, tube-shaped organ in the abdomen that completes the process of

digestion. There is both a large intestine and a small intestine. Also called the bowel. [NIH]

Intracellular: Inside a cell. [NIH]

Involuntary: Reaction occurring without intention or volition. [NIH]

Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A disorder that comes and goes. Nerves that control the muscles

in the GI tract are too active. The GI tract becomes sensitive to food, stool, gas, and stress.

Causes abdominal pain, bloating, and constipation or diarrhea. Also called spastic colon or

mucous colitis. [NIH]

Jealousy: An irrational reaction compounded of grief, loss of self-esteem, enmity against the

rival and self criticism. [NIH]

Kb: A measure of the length of DNA fragments, 1 Kb = 1000 base pairs. The largest DNA

fragments are up to 50 kilobases long. [NIH]

Large Intestine: The part of the intestine that goes from the cecum to the rectum. The large

intestine absorbs water from stool and changes it from a liquid to a solid form. The large

intestine is 5 feet long and includes the appendix, cecum, colon, and rectum. Also called

colon. [NIH]

Lichen Planus: An inflammatory, pruritic disease of the skin and mucous membranes,

which can be either generalized or localized. It is characterized by distinctive purplish, flattopped

papules having a predilection for the trunk and flexor surfaces. The lesions may be

discrete or coalesce to form plaques. Histologically, there is a "saw-tooth" pattern of

epidermal hyperplasia and vacuolar alteration of the basal layer of the epidermis along with

an intense upper dermal inflammatory infiltrate composed predominantly of T-cells.

Etiology is unknown. [NIH]

Lipid: Fat. [NIH]

Lipid A: Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows

strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties. [NIH]

Lipopolysaccharides: Substance consisting of polysaccaride and lipid. [NIH]

Liver: A large, glandular organ located in the upper abdomen. The liver cleanses the blood

and aids in digestion by secreting bile. [NIH]

Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the liver. [NIH]

Localized: Cancer which has not metastasized yet. [NIH]

Lumbar: Pertaining to the loins, the part of the back between the thorax and the pelvis. [EU]

Lupus: A form of cutaneous tuberculosis. It is seen predominantly in women and typically involves the nasal, buccal, and conjunctival mucosa. [NIH]

Lymph: The almost colorless fluid that travels through the lymphatic system and carries

cells that help fight infection and disease. [NIH]

Lymph node: A rounded mass of lymphatic tissue that is surrounded by a capsule of

connective tissue. Also known as a lymph gland. Lymph nodes are spread out along

lymphatic vessels and contain many lymphocytes, which filter the lymphatic fluid (lymph).


Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the face constituting the lower jaw. It supports

the lower teeth. [NIH]

Mastication: The act and process of chewing and grinding food in the mouth. [NIH]

Masticatory: 1. subserving or pertaining to mastication; affecting the muscles of mastication.

2. a remedy to be chewed but not swallowed. [EU]

Mediator: An object or substance by which something is mediated, such as (1) a structure of

the nervous system that transmits impulses eliciting a specific response; (2) a chemical

substance (transmitter substance) that induces activity in an excitable tissue, such as nerve

or muscle; or (3) a substance released from cells as the result of the interaction of antigen

with antibody or by the action of antigen with a sensitized lymphocyte. [EU]

Medical Records: Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or

illnesses. [NIH]

Medical Staff: Professional medical personnel who provide care to patients in an organized

facility, institution or agency. [NIH]

MEDLINE: An online database of MEDLARS, the computerized bibliographic Medical

Literature Analysis and Retrieval System of the National Library of Medicine. [NIH]

Membrane: A very thin layer of tissue that covers a surface. [NIH]

Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning,

(2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into

immediate, recent, and remote memory. [NIH]

Meningitis: Inflammation of the meninges. When it affects the dura mater, the disease is

termed pachymeningitis; when the arachnoid and pia mater are involved, it is called

leptomeningitis, or meningitis proper. [EU]

Mental: Pertaining to the mind; psychic. 2. (L. mentum chin) pertaining to the chin. [EU]

Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the

adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior

producing either distress or impairment of function. [NIH]

Mental Processes: Conceptual functions or thinking in all its forms. [NIH]

Mianserin: A tetracyclic compound with antidepressant effects. It may cause drowsiness

and hematological problems. Its mechanism of therapeutic action is not well understood,

although it apparently blocks alpha-adrenergic, histamine H1, and some types of serotonin

receptors. [NIH]

Microbiology: The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and

viruses. [NIH]

Modification: A change in an organism, or in a process in an organism, that is acquired

from its own activity or environment. [NIH]

Molecular: Of, pertaining to, or composed of molecules : a very small mass of matter. [EU]

Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds. [NIH]

Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle. [NIH]

Motility: The ability to move spontaneously. [EU]

Motor nerve: An efferent nerve conveying an impulse that excites muscular contraction.


Mucociliary: Pertaining to or affecting the mucus membrane and hairs (including eyelashes, nose hair, .): mucociliary clearing: the clearance of mucus by ciliary movement ( particularly in the respiratory system). [EU]

Multiple sclerosis: A disorder of the central nervous system marked by weakness, numbness, a loss of muscle coordination, and problems with vision, speech, and bladder control. Multiple sclerosis is thought to be an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system destroys myelin. Myelin is a substance that contains both protein and fat (lipid) and serves as a nerve insulator and helps in the transmission of nerve signals. [NIH]

Muscle relaxant: An agent that specifically aids in reducing muscle tension, as those acting at the polysynaptic neurons of motor nerves (e.g. meprobamate) or at the myoneural junction (curare and related compounds). [EU]

Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position. [NIH]

Muscle tension: A force in a material tending to produce extension; the state of being stretched. [NIH]

Myelin: The fatty substance that covers and protects nerves. [NIH]

Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (coronary arteriosclerosis), to obstruction by a thrombus (coronary thrombosis), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result

in necrosis of cardiac muscle (myocardial infarction). [NIH]

Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the heart composed of striated, involuntary muscle known as cardiac muscle. [NIH]

Naproxen: An anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic and antipyretic properties. Both the

acid and its sodium salt are used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other

rheumatic or musculoskeletal disorders, dysmenorrhea, and acute gout. [NIH]

Neck Pain: Discomfort or more intense forms of pain that are localized to the cervical

region. This term generally refers to pain in the posterior or lateral regions of the neck. [NIH]

Necrosis: A pathological process caused by the progressive degradative action of enzymes

that is generally associated with severe cellular trauma. It is characterized by mitochondrial

swelling, nuclear flocculation, uncontrolled cell lysis, and ultimately cell death. [NIH]

Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus composed of the brain, spinal cord, nerves and

ganglia. [NIH]

Neuralgia: Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral

or cranial nerve. [NIH]

Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon,

and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the nervous

system. [NIH]

Neuropathy: A problem in any part of the nervous system except the brain and spinal cord. Neuropathies can be caused by infection, toxic substances, or disease. [NIH]

Neurosis: Functional derangement due to disorders of the nervous system which does not

affect the psychic personality of the patient. [NIH]

Neurotransmitters: Endogenous signaling molecules that alter the behavior of neurons or

effector cells. Neurotransmitter is used here in its most general sense, including not only

messengers that act directly to regulate ion channels, but also those that act through second

messenger systems, and those that act at a distance from their site of release. Included are

neuromodulators, neuroregulators, neuromediators, and neurohumors, whether or not

acting at synapses. [NIH]

Nonverbal Communication: Transmission of emotions, ideas, and attitudes between

individuals in ways other than the spoken language. [NIH]

Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a

widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal

transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in

the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used

pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic. [NIH]

Opiate: A remedy containing or derived from opium; also any drug that induces sleep. [EU]

Open-label: A term used to describe the situation when both the researcher and the participant in a research study know the treatment the participant is receiving. Open-label is the opposite of double-blind when neither the researcher nor the participant knows what treatment the participant is receiving (www.medterms.com ).

Orofacial: Of or relating to the mouth and face. [EU]

Palliative: 1. Affording relief, but not cure. 2. An alleviating medicine. [EU]

Palsy: Disease of the peripheral nervous system occurring usually after many years of

increased lead absorption. [NIH]

Pancreas: A mixed exocrine and endocrine gland situated transversely across the posterior

abdominal wall in the epigastric and hypochondriac regions. The endocrine portion is

comprised of the Islets of Langerhans, while the exocrine portion is a compound acinar

gland that secretes digestive enzymes. [NIH]

Paralysis: Loss of ability to move all or part of the body. [NIH]

Paranasal Sinuses: Air-filled extensions of the respiratory part of the nasal cavity into the

frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid, and maxillary cranial bones. They vary in size and form in

different individuals and are lined by the ciliated mucous membranes of the nasal cavity.


Paranoia: A psychotic disorder marked by persistent delusions of persecution or delusional

jealousy and behaviour like that of the paranoid personality, such as suspiciousness,

mistrust, and combativeness. It differs from paranoid schizophrenia, in which hallucinations

or formal thought disorder are present, in that the delusions are logically consistent and that

there are no other psychotic features. The designation in DSM III-R is delusional (paranoid)

disorders, with five types : persecutory, jealous, erotomanic, somatic, and grandiose. [EU]

Paroxysmal: Recurring in paroxysms (= spasms or seizures). [EU]

Patient Education: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.


Peptide: Any compound consisting of two or more amino acids, the building blocks of

proteins. Peptides are combined to make proteins. [NIH]

Perception: The ability quickly and accurately to recognize similarities and differences

among presented objects, whether these be pairs of words, pairs of number series, or

multiple sets of these or other symbols such as geometric figures. [NIH]

Periapical Granuloma: Chronic nonsuppurative inflammation of periapical tissue resulting

from irritation following pulp disease or endodontic treatment. [NIH]

Periapical Periodontitis: Inflammation of the periapical tissue. It includes general,

unspecified, or acute nonsuppurative inflammation. Chronic nonsuppurative inflammation

is periapical granuloma. Suppurative inflammation is periapical abscess. [NIH]

Periapical Tissue: Tissue surrounding the apex of a tooth, including the apical portion of the

periodontal membrane and alveolar bone. [NIH]

Pericardium: The fibroserous sac surrounding the heart and the roots of the great vessels.


Pericoronitis: Inflammation of the gingiva surrounding the crown of a tooth. [NIH]

Periodontal Abscess: Localized circumscribed purulent area of inflammation in the

periodontal tissue. It is a derivative of marginal periodontitis and commonly associated with

suprabony and infrabony pockets and interradicular involvements, in contrast to periapical

abscess which is attributable to pulp necrosis. [NIH]

Periodontitis: Inflammation of the periodontal membrane; also called periodontitis simplex.


Peripheral Nervous System: The nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. The

peripheral nervous system has autonomic and somatic divisions. The autonomic nervous

system includes the enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic subdivisions. The somatic

nervous system includes the cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia and the peripheral

sensory receptors. [NIH]

Pharmacologic: Pertaining to pharmacology or to the properties and reactions of drugs. [EU]

Photophobia: Abnormal sensitivity to light. This may occur as a manifestation of eye

diseases; migraine; subarachnoid hemorrhage; meningitis; and other disorders. Photophobia

may also occur in association with depression and other mental disorders. [NIH]

Physical Examination: Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs

of disease or abnormality. [NIH]

Physical Therapy: The restoration of function and the prevention of disability following

disease or injury with the use of light, heat, cold, water, electricity, ultrasound, and exercise.


Pilot study: The initial study examining a new method or treatment. [NIH]

Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of the kingdom Plantae. They are characterized

by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized

regions of cell divisions (meristems); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of

organs of locomotion; absense of nervous and sensory systems; and an alteration of haploid

and diploid generations. [NIH]

Plasma: The clear, yellowish, fluid part of the blood that carries the blood cells. The proteins

that form blood clots are in plasma. [NIH]

Pneumonia: Inflammation of the lungs. [NIH]

Posterior: Situated in back of, or in the back part of, or affecting the back or dorsal surface of

the body. In lower animals, it refers to the caudal end of the body. [EU]

Postural: Pertaining to posture or position. [EU]

Potentiating: A degree of synergism which causes the exposure of the organism to a

harmful substance to worsen a disease already contracted. [NIH]

Practice Guidelines: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for

the health care practitioner to assist him in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis,

therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government

agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery. [NIH]

Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a

designated time. It is differentiated from incidence, which refers to the number of new cases

in the population at a given time. [NIH]

Progressive: Advancing; going forward; going from bad to worse; increasing in scope or

severity. [EU]

Prospective study: An epidemiologic study in which a group of individuals (a cohort), all

free of a particular disease and varying in their exposure to a possible risk factor, is followed

over a specific amount of time to determine the incidence rates of the disease in the exposed

and unexposed groups. [NIH]

Prostate: A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the bladder and the urethra. It secretes

a substance that liquifies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the

lower part of the pubic symphysis, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests

upon the rectum. [NIH]

Protein S: The vitamin K-dependent cofactor of activated protein C. Together with protein

C, it inhibits the action of factors VIIIa and Va. A deficiency in protein S can lead to

recurrent venous and arterial thrombosis. [NIH]

Proteins: Polymers of amino acids linked by peptide bonds. The specific sequence of amino

acids determines the shape and function of the protein. [NIH]

Pruritic: Pertaining to or characterized by pruritus. [EU]

Psychiatric: Pertaining to or within the purview of psychiatry. [EU]

Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and

treatment of mental disorders. [NIH]

Psychic: Pertaining to the psyche or to the mind; mental. [EU]

Psychogenic: Produced or caused by psychic or mental factors rather than organic factors.


Psychology: The science dealing with the study of mental processes and behavior in man

and animals. [NIH]

Psychotherapy: A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances

primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication. [NIH]

Psychotropic: Exerting an effect upon the mind; capable of modifying mental activity;

usually applied to drugs that effect the mental state. [EU]

Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among

alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions. [NIH]

Purulent: Consisting of or containing pus; associated with the formation of or caused by

pus. [EU]

Radiation: Emission or propagation of electromagnetic energy (waves/rays), or the

waves/rays themselves; a stream of electromagnetic particles (electrons, neutrons, protons,

alpha particles) or a mixture of these. The most common source is the sun. [NIH]

Radiation therapy: The use of high-energy radiation from x-rays, gamma rays, neutrons, and other sources to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Radiation may come from a machine outside the body (external-beam radiation therapy), or it may come from radioactive material placed in the body in the area near cancer cells (internal radiation therapy, implant radiation, or brachytherapy). Systemic radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance, such as a radiolabeled monoclonal antibody, that circulates throughout the body. Also called radiotherapy. [NIH]

Randomized: Describes an experiment or clinical trial in which animal or human subjects are assigned by chance to separate groups that compare different treatments. [NIH]

Randomized clinical trial: A study in which the participants are assigned by chance to separate groups that compare different treatments; neither the researchers nor the participants can choose which group. Using chance to assign people to groups means that the groups will be similar and that the treatments they receive can be compared objectively. At the time of the trial, it is not known which treatment is best. It is the patient's choice to be in a randomized trial. [NIH]

Reassurance: A procedure in psychotherapy that seeks to give the client confidence in a favorable outcome. It makes use of suggestion, of the prestige of the therapist. [NIH]

Receptor: A molecule inside or on the surface of a cell that binds to a specific substance and causes a specific physiologic effect in the cell. [NIH]

Receptors, Serotonin: Cell-surface proteins that bind serotonin and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Several types of serotonin receptors have been recognized which differ in their pharmacology, molecular biology, and mode of action. [NIH]

Rectal: By or having to do with the rectum. The rectum is the last 8 to 10 inches of the large intestine and ends at the anus. [NIH]

Rectum: The last 8 to 10 inches of the large intestine. [NIH]

Refer: To send or direct for treatment, aid, information, de decision. [NIH]

Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord. [NIH]

Regimen: A treatment plan that specifies the dosage, the schedule, and the duration of treatment. [NIH]

Relaxant: 1. Lessening or reducing tension. 2. An agent that lessens tension. [EU]

Rheumatoid: Resembling rheumatism. [EU]

Rheumatoid arthritis: A form of arthritis, the cause of which is unknown, although

infection, hypersensitivity, hormone imbalance and psychologic stress have been suggested

as possible causes. [NIH]

Risk factor: A habit, trait, condition, or genetic alteration that increases a person's chance of

developing a disease. [NIH]

Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the salivary glands and mucous glands of the

mouth. It contains mucins, water, organic salts, and ptylin. [NIH]

Salivation: 1. The secretion of saliva. 2. Ptyalism (= excessive flow of saliva). [EU]

Schizophrenia: A mental disorder characterized by a special type of disintegration of the

personality. [NIH]

Sclerosis: A pathological process consisting of hardening or fibrosis of an anatomical

structure, often a vessel or a nerve. [NIH]

Screening: Checking for disease when there are no symptoms. [NIH]

Secretion: 1. The process of elaborating a specific product as a result of the activity of a

gland; this activity may range from separating a specific substance of the blood to the

elaboration of a new chemical substance. 2. Any substance produced by secretion. [EU]

Sedative: 1. Allaying activity and excitement. 2. An agent that allays excitement. [EU]

Self Care: Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health

care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends. [NIH]

Sensory loss: A disease of the nerves whereby the myelin or insulating sheath of myelin on

the nerves does not stay intact and the messages from the brain to the muscles through the

nerves are not carried properly. [NIH]

Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino

acid L-tryptophan. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system,

gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important

physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis,

and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (receptors, serotonin) explain the

broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator. [NIH]

Side effect: A consequence other than the one(s) for which an agent or measure is used, as

the adverse effects produced by a drug, especially on a tissue or organ system other than the

one sought to be benefited by its administration. [EU]

Sinusitis: An inflammatory process of the mucous membranes of the paranasal sinuses that

occurs in three stages: acute, subacute, and chronic. Sinusitis results from any condition

causing ostial obstruction or from pathophysiologic changes in the mucociliary transport

mechanism. [NIH]

Skull: The skeleton of the head including the bones of the face and the bones enclosing the

brain. [NIH]

Smooth muscle: Muscle that performs automatic tasks, such as constricting blood vessels.


Sodium: An element that is a member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol

Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23. With a valence of 1, it has a strong affinity for

oxygen and other nonmetallic elements. Sodium provides the chief cation of the

extracellular body fluids. Its salts are the most widely used in medicine. (From Dorland,

27th ed) Physiologically the sodium ion plays a major role in blood pressure regulation,

maintenance of fluid volume, and electrolyte balance. [NIH]

Soft tissue: Refers to muscle, fat, fibrous tissue, blood vessels, or other supporting tissue of

the body. [NIH]

Soma: The body as distinct from the mind; all the body tissue except the germ cells; all the

axial body. [NIH]

Somatic: 1. Pertaining to or characteristic of the soma or body. 2. Pertaining to the body wall

in contrast to the viscera. [EU]

Spastic: 1. Of the nature of or characterized by spasms. 2. Hypertonic, so that the muscles

are stiff and the movements awkward. 3. A person exhibiting spasticity, such as occurs in

spastic paralysis or in cerebral palsy. [EU]

Specialist: In medicine, one who concentrates on 1 special branch of medical science. [NIH]

Spinal cord: The main trunk or bundle of nerves running down the spine through holes in

the spinal bone (the vertebrae) from the brain to the level of the lower back. [NIH]

Stimulant: 1. Producing stimulation; especially producing stimulation by causing tension on

muscle fibre through the nervous tissue. 2. An agent or remedy that produces stimulation.


Stimulus: That which can elicit or evoke action (response) in a muscle, nerve, gland or other

excitable issue, or cause an augmenting action upon any function or metabolic process. [NIH]

Stool: The waste matter discharged in a bowel movement; feces. [NIH]

Stress: Forcibly exerted influence; pressure. Any condition or situation that causes strain or

tension. Stress may be either physical or psychologic, or both. [NIH]

Subacute: Somewhat acute; between acute and chronic. [EU]

Subarachnoid: Situated or occurring between the arachnoid and the pia mater. [EU]

Suppression: A conscious exclusion of disapproved desire contrary with repression, in

which the process of exclusion is not conscious. [NIH]

Symptomatic: Having to do with symptoms, which are signs of a condition or disease. [NIH]

Systemic: Affecting the entire body. [NIH]

Systemic lupus erythematosus: SLE. A chronic inflammatory connective tissue disease

marked by skin rashes, joint pain and swelling, inflammation of the kidneys, inflammation

of the fibrous tissue surrounding the heart (i.e., the pericardium), as well as other problems.

Not all affected individuals display all of these problems. May be referred to as lupus. [NIH]

Temporal: One of the two irregular bones forming part of the lateral surfaces and base of the

skull, and containing the organs of hearing. [NIH]

Temporal Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior

portion retracts the mandible. [NIH]

Tetanus: A disease caused by tetanospasmin, a powerful protein toxin produced by

Clostridium tetani. Tetanus usually occurs after an acute injury, such as a puncture wound

or laceration. Generalized tetanus, the most common form, is characterized by tetanic

muscular contractions and hyperreflexia. Localized tetanus presents itself as a mild

condition with manifestations restricted to muscles near the wound. It may progress to the

generalized form. [NIH]

Therapeutics: The branch of medicine which is concerned with the treatment of diseases,

palliative or curative. [NIH]

Thoracic: Having to do with the chest. [NIH]

Tissue: A group or layer of cells that are alike in type and work together to perform a

specific function. [NIH]

Toothache: Pain in the adjacent areas of the teeth. [NIH]

Toxic: Having to do with poison or something harmful to the body. Toxic substances

usually cause unwanted side effects. [NIH]

Toxicity: The quality of being poisonous, especially the degree of virulence of a toxic

microbe or of a poison. [EU]

Toxicology: The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and

pharmacologic action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of

toxic manifestations. [NIH]

Toxin: A poison; frequently used to refer specifically to a protein produced by some higher

plants, certain animals, and pathogenic bacteria, which is highly toxic for other living

organisms. Such substances are differentiated from the simple chemical poisons and the

vegetable alkaloids by their high molecular weight and antigenicity. [EU]

Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA into cells, usually eukaryotic. It is

analogous to bacterial transformation. [NIH]

Trauma: Any injury, wound, or shock, must frequently physical or structural shock,

producing a disturbance. [NIH]

Tricyclic: Containing three fused rings or closed chains in the molecular structure. [EU]

Trigeminal: Cranial nerve V. It is sensory for the eyeball, the conjunctiva, the eyebrow, the

skin of face and scalp, the teeth, the mucous membranes in the mouth and nose, and is

motor to the muscles of mastication. [NIH]

Trismus: Spasmodic contraction of the masseter muscle resulting in forceful jaw closure.

This may be seen with a variety of diseases, including tetanus, as a complication of radiation

therapy, trauma, or in association with neoplastic conditions. [NIH]

Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for

nitrogen balance in adults. It is a precursor serotonin and niacin. [NIH]

Tumor marker: A substance sometimes found in an increased amount in the blood, other

body fluids, or tissues and which may mean that a certain type of cancer is in the body.

Examples of tumor markers include CA 125 (ovarian cancer), CA 15-3 (breast cancer), CEA

(ovarian, lung, breast, pancreas, and gastrointestinal tract cancers), and PSA (prostate

cancer). Also called biomarker. [NIH]

Urinary: Having to do with urine or the organs of the body that produce and get rid of

urine. [NIH]

Urine: Fluid containing water and waste products. Urine is made by the kidneys, stored in

the bladder, and leaves the body through the urethra. [NIH]

Uterus: The small, hollow, pear-shaped organ in a woman's pelvis. This is the organ in

which a fetus develops. Also called the womb. [NIH]

Vaccine: A substance or group of substances meant to cause the immune system to respond

to a tumor or to microorganisms, such as bacteria or viruses. [NIH]

Vascular: Pertaining to blood vessels or indicative of a copious blood supply. [EU]

Vasculitis: Inflammation of a blood vessel. [NIH]

Vasodilator: An agent that widens blood vessels. [NIH]

Ventricles: Fluid-filled cavities in the heart or brain. [NIH]

Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and

treatment of diseases in animals. [NIH]


Source : Tension Headache - A Medical Dictionary, Bibliography, and Annotated Research Guide to Internet References, JAMES N. PARKER, M.D. & PHILIP M. PARKER, PH.D., ICON Health Publications, http://www.ebookmall.com/ebook/193608-ebook.htm  (~ 49 $ US).